Anecdotal reports concerning ibogaine's effects appeared in the early 1960s.  Its anti-addictive properties were discovered accidentally by Howard Lotsof in 1962, at the age of 19, when he and five friends—all heroin addicts—noted subjective reduction of their craving and withdrawal symptoms while taking it.  Further anecdotal observation convinced Lotsof of its potential usefulness in treating substance addictions. He contracted with a Belgian company to produce ibogaine in tablet form for clinical trials in the Netherlands, and was awarded a United States patent for the product in 1985. The first objective, placebo-controlled evidence of Ibogaine's ability to attenuate opioid withdrawal in rats was published by Dzoljic et al. in 1988.  Diminution of morphine self-administration was reported in preclinical studies by Glick et al. in 1991.  Cappendijk et al. demonstrated reduction in cocaine self-administration in rats in 1993,  and Rezvani reported reduced alcohol dependence in three strains of "alcohol preferring" rats in 1995.