Haldol side effects

Anticholinergic drugs are used to control neuroleptic -induced EPS, although akathisia may require beta blockers or even benzodiazepines . If the EPS are induced by an antipsychotic , EPS may be reduced by dose titration or by switching to an atypical antipsychotic , such as aripiprazole , ziprasidone , quetiapine , olanzapine , risperidone , or clozapine . These medications possess an additional mode of action that is believed to negate their effect on the nigrostriatal pathway, which means they are associated with fewer extrapyramidal side-effects than "conventional" antipsychotics ( chlorpromazine , haloperidol , etc.), although some research has shown that second generation neuroleptics cause EPS at the same rate as the first generation drugs. [9] [10]

Haldol is available in sterile vials containing 5 mg strength Haldol per 1 ml of fluid used for injection. Usual starting dose is -5 mg intramuscularly. Dose may vary according to patient response to the drug. Switch to an oral form of this drug is recommended as soon as possible. Haldol may interact with other drugs so the patient needs close observation or monitoring to determine if other side effects develop. Haldol should only be used during pregnancy or in women likely to become pregnant only if the benefit clearly justifies a potential risk to the fetus; fetal abnormalities and fetal exposure to Haldol in the third trimester have shown dependence at birth. Women who are breastfeeding should not take Haldol because the drug may affect the infant. Although reports of use for behavior modification exist, the drug is not approved for use in children.

Haloperidol is a typical butyrophenone type antipsychotic that exhibits high affinity dopamine D 2 receptor antagonism and slow receptor dissociation kinetics. [42] It has effects similar to the phenothiazines . [18] The drug binds preferentially to D 2 and α 1 receptors at low dose (ED 50 = and  mg/kg, respectively), and 5-HT 2 receptors at a higher dose (ED 50 =  mg/kg). Given that antagonism of D 2 receptors is more beneficial on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and antagonism of 5-HT 2 receptors on the negative symptoms, this characteristic underlies haloperidol's greater effect on delusions, hallucinations and other manifestations of psychosis. [43] Haloperidol's negligible affinity for histamine H 1 receptors and muscarinic M 1 acetylcholine receptors yields an antipsychotic with a lower incidence of sedation, weight gain, and orthostatic hypotension though having higher rates of treatment emergent extrapyramidal symptoms .

Haldol side effects

haldol side effects


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