John Tiller was born in Blackpool in 1854 and learnt to clog dance as a boy. He later started a theatre school in Manchester. By 1895 he managed several troupes of dancers. Each troupe was slightly different but all of them performed the same style of formation dancing in which the girls were grouped according to height. Each troupe had a distinct personality or theme. There was the Fairy Troupe, Tiller’s Troubadours, the Forget-me-nots, Tiller’s Mascots and the Rainbow Troupe. Dressed in similar costumes they all performed high kicks, cartwheels and the splits as part of their routines.
The most widely accepted theory, based on linguistic and archeological evidence, is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model , which hypothesizes that Austronesians from Taiwan , who were themselves descended from the neolithic civilizations of the Yangtze river such as the Liangzhu culture ,  began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals.   During the neolithic period, a " jade culture " is said to have existed as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found in the Philippines dated to 2000 BC.