The Lumad are people from various ethnic groups in Mindanao island. Residing in their ancestral lands,  they are often evicted and displaced due to the Moro people 's claim on the same territory.  The Lumad have lost parts of their ancestral land due to a failure to understand the modern land tenure system.  To counter this, the Lumad established schools in their communities, supplying essential knowledge for the tribe members that would protect their rights, property and culture.  However, the Lumad communities are located in mountains that are distant from urban areas. These areas are also the location sites of armed conflict between the New People's Army (NPA) and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) . Caught in the conflict, the Lumad people's education, property, and security are endangered because of the increasing amount of military activity by the armed parties.  Increasing military activity have eventually led to the displacement of the communities to shelter sites.  Anxiety continues to grow among the Lumad with the escalation of armed conflict and detainment of community leaders (tribe leaders and teachers) labelled as rebels by the military.  Alternative schools within the communities (aided by NGOs and universities) face concerns of closing down or demolition of their property, with some buildings converted by the military for their use.  Lumad leaders and tribesmen, having experienced political detention due to false suspicions as well as the displacement of their tribes from their areas, have demanded respect for their human rights. 
Professor Lawrence A. Reid (U. of Hawaiʻi, Dept. of Linguistics, Emeritus) writes that he spent 10 months with the Tasaday and surrounding linguistic groups (1993–1996) and has concluded that they "probably were as isolated as they claim, that they were indeed unfamiliar with agriculture, that their language was a different dialect from that spoken by the closest neighbouring group, and that there was no hoax perpetrated by the original group that reported their existence."  In his paper 'Linguistic Archaeology: Tracking down the Tasaday Language',  Reid states that, although he originally thought that an individual Tasaday named Belayem was fabricating data, he later found, after a detailed analysis of the linguistic evidence, around 300 of Belayem's forms were actually used in Kulaman Valley Manobo ( Manobo languages ), that Belayem had never visited and did not even know about.
The stage shows were especially popular because they bore hidden messages of
encouragement for the war-weary people. The comedians Togo and Pugo, for
example, made fun of their conquerors (and were jailed for it); skits were staged
about the return of “Mang Arturo” (MacArthur). Guerrillas were said to be in
the audience, needing encouragement too, with a special song sung onstage to
signal to them that the Kempeitai were around. The Japanese censors’
restrictions actually caused a rebirth of the Tagalog theater, right in the theaters
where Hollywood had reigned supreme.